With all the hype surrounding new solid-state projection light sources, namely laser and LED, it might seem that the use-case for lamp-based projection is quickly fading away into the annals of history.

However, while LED and laser projectors do offer some significant maintenance and long-term cost benefits, their upfront higher costs can deliver some customers sticker shock, though in the sub-6000 lumen projector market, the prices have now dropped to the point that most will consider a laser projector a more economical choice.

Let's dive into what makes each technology unique, and where you might choose one over the other.

Lamp Projection

The tried-and-true projection lamp has been around for decades and has consistently undergone new innovations such as brighter light and increased life span. However, lifespans for much of its history were measured in hundreds of hours; it wasn't until the last 10 years or so that we began to see 1000+ hour projection lamps.

Along with the evolution of the lamps, the need to accomplish higher and higher lumen output led to the introduction of dual-lamp systems. This achieved the desired effect, but also increased the ongoing maintenance costs to keep the unit functioning.

Optoma 4K550ST Short Throw Projector
With solid-state light engines coming on strong in the commercial space, lamp-based models have become an excellent value for situations that demand high brightness on a budget. Optoma's new 4K550ST, with 4,500 lumens, and a $3,999 street price, is just one recent example.

More recent projector releases now boast lamp lifespans of 5,000 hours and even a 10,000-hour estimated lifespan if the projector is run in its "Eco" mode, which reduces lamp output for the benefit of longevity. With numbers like this, I'm hard-pressed to say that lamp-based projection is anywhere close to going away.

So where would one choose lamp-based over a solid-state solution? The easy answer is that lamp projectors are best for those who are only utilizing projection intermittently, such as a movie night once a month, or a couple times a week in a classroom. One could easily argue that churches, particularly small churches without a lot happening during the week, could still find a valuable use-case in the now lower-cost lamp projectors.

Nonetheless, one must consider the long-term impact of needing to replace lamps. Even with a long lifespan of 5,000 hours, by the time a small church experiences a blown projector lamp, what will be the availability of a replacement lamp? Will that replacement need to be found five years down the road? Perhaps ten years or more?

Still, I would say that in many instances, lamp-based projection is still very much a viable and more affordable solution.

LED Projection

Until fairly recently, most LED-driven projectors have not provided impressive numbers: low lumen output, low quality imaging chips producing less desirable imagery, and a lot of overseas, off-brand manufacturers flooding the market with sub-par products have left a lot of consumers wary, and for good reason.

InFocus IN1188HD LED Projector
BenQ HT9060 LED Home Theater Projector
Although they enjoy similar long-life as solid-state lasers, LED light sources have been associated in the past with low-brightness, lower-quality projectors. That's changing as respected manufacturers continue to push the limits of LED. The upcoming InFocus IN1188HD (top), for example, is a compact and lightweight portable business projector boasting 3,000 lumens, 1080p resolution with unusually wide color gamut for its product class, and an expected $1,199 street price. The new BenQ HT9060, $8,999, is a state of the art home theater projector utilizing the latest Philips LED technology to achieve high color fidelity and wide DCI-P3 color gamut with 2,200 lumens brightness.

However, in 2017, Hitachi was the first to announce a 3,500 lumen LED projector, which opened the doors to more manufacturers like Optoma, Panasonic, Epson, and Casio to release either all LED or hybrid LED/laser projectors.

As with laser engines, the typically more affordable LED models may boast 20,000 hours or more of operation and virtually no maintenance (most still have filters that require cleaning at recommended intervals). These projectors can greatly aid those who have projectors installed in hard-to-reach locations or who use their projector every day and hence would burn through a lamp at a faster pace. Frequent use means better long-term value in this case. Another benefit that may not be immediately obvious is that using a solid state light source can mean less generated heat, which may have significant impact in small spaces or unique orientations, such as when you're mounting a projector at a non-standard angle. Museums, art installations, and environmental projection immediately come to mind as potential use-cases for this feature.

 Casio XJ-S400 Projector
Though less frequently encountered, hybrid LED/laser projectors seek to use a combination of these technologies to boost light output beyond what LED can do alone while retaining some of its size, weight, and cost benefits. Casio's new XJ-S400UN classroom projector takes this approach to achieve a 4,000 lumen rating with WUXGA resolution in a small chassis.

LED light sources have been around in the lighting industry for a long time, but are fairly new to the professional projection market, and as such, do have a ways to go before they catch up to projection lamps and laser-based projection in terms of light output. But, given the incredible amount of money being thrown into LED research, it would not surprise me to see brighter and even longer-lasting LED solutions coming to market as early as late 2019 and early 2020. We have already seen new models introduced for the home theater and business projector segments at CES 2019 and this year's ISE that feature 4K resolution, ultra short throw capability, and 3,500 lumen output.

Laser Projection

Arguably one of the fastest growing industry segments in professional A/V, laser projectors sport similar features to LED projectors, such as 20,000 hour life, virtually maintenance free operation, lower heat generation, non-standard angle mounting ability, etc.

What primarily separates laser from LED is that laser projectors can be purchased with higher lumen output (up to and potentially beyond 30,000 lumens), which means large venues can now take advantage of the long-term lower cost of ownership that solid-state light engines bring. Large churches, theaters, schools, outdoor projection mapped exhibits, and other spaces and applications that require large-format projection can utilize laser to lower costs without sacrificing brightness, color saturation or image quality.

Panasonic PT-RQ50K Laser Projector
Along with long life and no lamp replacements, laser distinguishes itself by the ability to hit extraordinarily high light output where it's needed. The upcoming Panasonic PT-RQ50K, a large-venue/staging projector shown at the 2019 ISE, claims to be the world's first (and smallest) single-chassis 50,000 ANSI lumen projector with native 4K resolution. Of course, laser is also turning up now in a wide range of 5,000-10,000 lumen class projectors designed for more common applications.

In addition, you can find a laser option in just about every vertical in the industry, be it travel, business, education, installation, touring, etc., whereas specialized professional LED projector options for some of segments are non-existent or still coming online.

Essentially, laser projection technology is ahead of LED in these repsects at this point, though I'd expect to see that distance close over the next two years.


In terms of costs, we are seeing an industry-wide shift downwards, with lamp-based projection being at the bottom of the pile. Why the shift? At this point in the industry's history, we are seeing manufacturers moving away from a model dependent on customers replacing filters and lamps to simply replacing projector units as a whole.

What is the right choice for you? I would say it comes down to how many hours you plan to use your projector every week, combined with the size of your available budget. For my own projector, I personally settled for a lamp-based model with a lamp life span of 5,000 hours because it fit my budget and use-case of a couple hours a week.

However, if you need your projector for several hours per week, and/or it is going to be mounted in a hard-to-reach location, laser or LED may be a better solution for you. Bear in mind, however, that you will likely need to clean the filter once in a while, regardless of which technology you choose.

At the end of the day, it's important to do your research, as making a projector purchase for home or a business/institution could be a large financial outlay. There will be other considerations to factor into your decision as well—how many lumens you need, the ambient lighting in your space, the resolution you demand, the content you are displaying (mostly text, mostly images/movies or a mix of both?), how large a screen you need, what screen material are you using or have available, and how you predict your projection needs might change over the next five years. These are all questions you need to ask, and answer, before making your purchase to avoid buyer's remorse and ensure you're happy with your projection system now and in the future.

Tim Adams is president and chief systems designer for Timato Systems, an audio/video integration company specializing in servicing the sound, lighting, video, projection and live-streaming needs of churches and other houses of worship. He can be reached at info@timatosystems.com.

Comments (23) Post a Comment
Duncan Posted Apr 1, 2019 3:40 PM PST
Why not mention the benefits of dynamic lamp dimming? You get the longest lamp life along with reduced power consumption and better contrast and highest brightness when needed.
Miguel A Molina Posted Apr 3, 2019 6:01 AM PST
They should start making projectors for small rooms I have a 8 by 10 room
Rob Sabin, Editor Posted Apr 3, 2019 9:23 AM PST
Miguel, many short throw projectors and especially ultra short throw (UST) projectors could be made to work in that space. Short throws usually need just a few feet off the wall, UST's only a few inches to throw a 100-inch image.
Sid Posted Apr 4, 2019 12:52 AM PST
I got a high quality Epson projector recently and it seemed fantastic at first, but within minutes there was a strange smell in the room. I Googled this, and others had experienced the same over a range of projectors. Apparently it was just" the new lamp "burning in" and was expected to disappear after one or two HUNDRED hours.

I had never experienced this symptom before, but considering lamps generally contain mercury, it made me wonder what might be silently seeping into a room even in machines without obvious symptoms.

Currently I have a dinky little led Optoma, and will be looking more at a long term lampless solution.
Dsouza Posted Apr 5, 2019 1:56 AM PST
Are the LED lamps replaceable just like in the lamp based projector?
Rob Sabin, Editor Posted Apr 5, 2019 8:57 AM PST
Dsouza, it is rare to find a laser or LED projector designed for any light source replacement, much less consumer replacement, though I think I may recall some pricey laser models offering factory replacement. It would most make sense for very expensive commercial projectors that see many hours of daily use, and for which the price is so high that an expensive laser replacement is still a more cost effective option than replacing the entire projector. A laser rated for 20,000 hours to half life, for example, could only be run for 2.3 years of continuous, round the clock use. That same 20,000 hours for a projector being used as a consumer television could be run 6 hours every single day for 9 years straight. As Tim notes in his story, these solid-state projectors are built on the premise that you'll use it up and replace the whole projector. The way things are going, other advances in video technology are likely to encourage an upgrade well before the light source runs down anyway.
Mark I. Scott Posted Apr 5, 2019 11:09 AM PST
Heat & Color volume are two thoughts come to my mind when mentioning either Laser or LED projection. It's Less Heat and Larger Color Volume closer to P3 and Rec 2020.
Rob Sabin, Editor Posted Apr 5, 2019 11:44 AM PST
Mark, LED actually isn't known for its color gamut, hence it has till recently been the solution used for inexpensive or portable projectors where achieving home theater enthusiast specifications isn't the top priority. My understanding is that this is one area that is a focus of research now. BenQ's new HT9060, at $8,999, is somewhat rare in utilizing some high end Philips LED technology that's been engineered to help LED fulfill its promised legacy as the ideal light-source: compact, low-power, light-weight, long-life. You can read more about that on Philip's web page for their HLD LED tech.

kevin Posted Apr 6, 2019 4:33 AM PST
I'm currently weighing the options available today. My Sony is way past its half life, and it's too old to be worth replacing the lamp. I am torn- I want the long life and instant turn on/turn off of lamp-less projectors, but short of the super expensive, there are no options out there, especially LCD based, since I require a generous amount of lens-shift that no DLP projector offers. My question is this: Are there any options on the horizon that come close to fulfilling these requirements, or should I just bite the bullet and get another lamp based Sony or Epson?
Tim Adams Posted May 30, 2019 12:48 PM PST
Hi guys, wow, I've been out of the loop for a while! Let me address each of you in turn.

Mark I. Scott, I have never seen a church list a wide color gamut and matching a specific color spec as criteria for a projection system. Are they nice to have? Certainly, but it's far from the top priorities. A bright, clear image and long life are usually in the top three criteria, with noise being in the mix, as well. I know that BenQ has put a lot of attention in the last 2-3 years to color accuracy in some of their more inexpensive projectors, which is nice. But, if color accuracy is super important, chances are that the buyer is going to be looking at 3-chip units which are not aimed towards the budget-conscious. ;)

Dsouza, Rob is correct in that these are not generally considered to be "user-replaceable" light sources. The aim is more to create a budget-friendly projector with a long-life light source that will last long enough that the projector will be ready to replace with a new unit when the light source dies or has dimmed enough to justify replacement.

Sid, I'm assuming your Epson was a lamp-based projector, in which case yes, there is a burn-in process and it has an associated "aroma" with it. I've gotten used to it, but I can understand how that would be unpleasant to some. I'm not that worried about mercury because there shouldn't be that much in there. :)

Miguel, what Rob said is absolutely true; the ultrashort throw units have gotten incredibly affordable and pretty bright! I have used them for 120-inch screens without a problem. Happy to send you a video of a 4000 lumen 1080p unit projecting a 20ftx15ft image onto a ceiling from about 8' away. It's awesome!

Duncan, in a church environment, we want the best image at all times. Dynamic dimming, while useful in some situations like a classroom or boardroom, is not a feature that is cohesive in a church environment, in my opinion. What will happen is people will complain about why the image is not as bright, untrained techs will think it's time for a new projector, a new lamp, or that something is wrong, etc. There are a lot of issues with utilizing this feature in the wrong environment. Thanks for bringing it up, though!
Stuart Posted Aug 24, 2019 1:34 AM PST
Good article. You’re right to highlight the 5 and 10 year lamp replacement scenario. I don’t think most reviewers consider this as they are too much on the manufacturer upgrade roundabout. My Sony is slowly dying, an I’m keen to replace, but only when there is a good non lamp model available.

The obvious candidate is probably the Optoma UHZ65, but I can’t help thinking I’d like to be able fish in a bigger pond (I’m no early adopter). I was also sensitive to colour wheels last time I shopped and went non-DLP. My experience with lamps (and filters) has been poor. When I replaced first, a dealer sold me a fake lamp described as OEM and then the filters were discontinued leading to me having to make my own.

That coupled with a perennially unreliable Sony model (safety cutoff switches continually going wrong) which I’ve had to hack to get and keep running nearly made me throw in the towel on projectors. I long for a decent choice of laser or LED home cinema models and will then buy one with a stock of filters.

I also hope (!) that the manufacturers begin to stand behind their 20,000 light module lifespan with commensurate warranties. At the moment the consumer is expected to pony up the higher purchase price for laser with no guarantee that the payback in terms of lifespan will be there.

Bret Posted Nov 22, 2019 7:16 AM PST
I have been waiting for a full HD 1080P with LED with 3 color chips solid state projector for years.. what manufacturers should I be looking at? Burned thru 4 lamp based projectors and just got a big TV until technology is there and with rollable MicroLED technology coming who knows.
Murray Galbraith Posted Dec 5, 2019 9:36 AM PST
I currently have a Optima DLP, its getting a little long in the tooth and will be replacing in the next 6 months. Its a ceiling mount.

I'm leaning towards a laser projector but my home theater room is wired for a 13 foot throw distance. Screen size 16:9 on a 8 foot width

I use the projector on a daily basis for gaming, movies and watching TV.

With all this short throw distance talk not sure if i can install it without tearing a bunch of stuff apart. Something that the wife will say no to.

Will a laser projector, under 3k, function well in the above configuration?


Murray Galbraith Posted Dec 5, 2019 9:47 AM PST
Ooops a little quick on the submit button.

I can control the ambient light in the home theater room and currently project straight on to the wall. Have used high quality paint and really haven't seen a difference between the wall and several screens i've used over the years.

Is a laser screen a must have?
Tim Adams Posted Dec 12, 2019 7:13 PM PST
First off, apologies for the tardy reply-just learned about the comment approval process on PJC (hurray for the fight against spam and trolls!).

Stuart, first, sorry for the troubles you have had with lamp-based projectors. I have a $500 BenQ lamp that I use occasionally and when I do use it, it's for hours on end and it has held up really well!

I'm not sure I'm the best guy to be asking as I deal mostly with commercial projectors, given that I work primarily in commercial environments. However, throw some numbers out as to what is reasonable cost-wise, how big of a screen do you have, throw distance, how bright is your current PJ and are you looking for a laser LCD model (given your sensitivity to color wheels) or are you willing to look at DLP laser options?

Murray, are you using a matte white screen, is it painted? You might check out Crystal Technology Screens-seriously impressive OUTDOOR tests on video that frankly blow my mind. In terms of projector replacements, before we can talk about laser options, I need to know what kind of budget we are dealing with...
Murray Galbraith Posted Dec 14, 2019 1:00 PM PST
The wall is painted and my budget is between 2 - 3 k cdn. Mainly use for movies, games and tv.
Tommy Tang Posted Aug 12, 2020 6:43 PM PST
In last 2 months, LED projectors have bridged the gap to laser in terms of Lumens and image quality. The biggest advantage is the price; laser being 3 to 4 times more expensive as these are produced by the big boys. Some of these high spec LED projectors are costing less than $1k with 3000 to 5000 lumens.

This article has helped people to choose the correct range of projectors. However, the professionals, corporates (including house of worships) and consumers will all have to be addressed separately as their requirements will vary including throw distance and screen size in the space these are placed in.
Rob Sabin, Editor Posted Aug 12, 2020 8:37 PM PST
Tommy, don't mistake the cheap garbage being sold out there with bogus brightness specs as being in the same category as a serious projector. Trust me--there is no such thing as a LED projector today that is brighter than even the least bright laser projectors, save a couple of micro-portables out there that fit in a breast pocket ad scan the image with a laser source. LEDs have a long way to go...
Patrick Delage Posted Dec 17, 2020 7:51 PM PST
Another thing no one talk. It is good to have a extra long time lifespan on laser, but the true is...After 10 years, technology change and the pleasure of changing will start. I<m an owner since 10 years of a excellent panasonic ptae-40000. It is now time to change ! Even though still good...
Marco Posted Jun 12, 2021 9:04 AM PST

Do you have any practical heat output comparison between a laser projector and a lamp projector? I have a flight simulator setup with 3 Optoma GT1080 Darbees. They obviously output a decent amount of heat - so much that I’m my 13x16x7.5 room it becomes fairly hot and I have challenges with performance due to heat. I am considering upgrading to 1090HDRs in hopes that heat output is lesser to a degree that actually makes a difference, but I can’t find any actual comparison between sources. Any insight? Thanks in advance!
Rob Sabin, Editor Posted Jun 12, 2021 9:11 PM PST
Sorry I can't be more definitive about this but my understanding is that laser models generally generate much less heat for the same lumen output than a lamp model. You might have a look at the reviews done by our contributor Brian Nadel, who measures the temperature of the exhaust output on all his review samples. You'll notice that even the 5,000 lumen and higher models never seem to get terribly hot.

Or, you might ask this question on our Facebook user group page...

Devostock.com Posted Aug 28, 2021 4:30 AM PST
It is really important to know those differences :) I bought LeD projector thinking it would work for my office but no hope :)
Frank Coolen Posted Nov 6, 2021 2:06 PM PST
This article needs an update.

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